Hypothyroidism can be classified as, Primary (thyroid failure), Secondary (due to pituitary gland), Tertiary (due to hypothalamic deficiency).

The main cause of hypothyroidism is iodine deficiency, as per sarvarth sarva bhavanam, iodine deficiency as per sarvarthsarvartha, sarva bhavanam, iodine containing drugs like shigru, jalakumbhi are advised. Another main cause autoimmune thyroid disease is characterized by gradual lymphatic infiltration and progressive destruction of the functional thyroid tissue. The main cause of the hypothyroidism is iodine deficiency.

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability.

Several treatment options are available if you have hyperthyroidism. Doctors use anti-thyroid medications and radioactive iodine to slow the production of thyroid hormones. Sometimes, treatment of hyperthyroidism involves surgery to remove all or part of your thyroid gland. Although hyperthyroidism can be serious if you ignore it, most people respond well once hyperthyroidism is diagnosed and treated.Hyperthyroidism, often called overactive thyroid and sometimes hyperthyreosis, is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces and secretes excessive amounts of the free (not protein bound circulating in the blood) thyroid hormones -triiodothyronine (T3) and/or thyroxine (T4). Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. The opposite is hypothyroidism ('sluggish thyroid'), which is the reduced production and secretion of T3 and/or T4.

Hyperthyroidism is one cause of thyrotoxicosis-the hypermetabolic clinical syndrome which occurs when there are elevated serum levels of T3 and/or T4. Thyrotoxicosis can also occur without hyperthyroidism. Some people develop thyrotoxicosis due to inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), which can lead to excessive release of thyroid hormone already stored in the gland (without the accelerated hormone production that characterizes hyperthyroidism). Thyrotoxicosis can also occur after ingestion of excessive amounts of exogenous thyroid hormone in the form of thyroid hormone supplements, such as levothyroxine (a phenomenon known as exogenous thyrotoxicosis, alimentary thyrotoxicosis, or occult factitial thyrotoxicosis).

Disease management and therapy differ for thyrotoxicosis caused by hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by other conditions. Thyroid imaging and radiotracer thyroid uptake measurements, combined with serologic data, enable specific diagnosis and appropriate patient treatment.

The large and generally accepted modalities for treatment of hyperthyroidism in humans involve initial temporary use of suppressive thyrostatics medication (antithyroid drugs), and possibly later use of permanent surgical or radioisotope therapy. All approaches may cause underactive thyroid function (hypothyroidism) which is easily managed with levothyroxine or triiodothyronine supplementation. Surgery as an option predates the use of the less invasive radioisotope therapy (radioiodine 131 thyroid ablation), but is still required in cases where the thyroid gland is enlarged and causing compression to the neck structures, or the underlying cause of the hyperthyroidism may be cancerous in origin."

In ayurveda, hypothyroidism as well as hyper thyroidism is curable. Two months are needed for complete cure of the disease.

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